While consent and waiver are often used interchangeably, they have different meanings. A waiver is a consent document used for relinquishing one’s rights or claims, whereas consent is a document used for giving permission to an action or activity that the person will be subjected to.
For example, you have to obtain consent when collecting, processing, and storing personal data. However, you have to request a waiver during IRB applications and research. Human subjects sign a waiver document and state that they have been told of potential adverse effects of the research and will not hold responsible the researchers for any injury. Waivers can also be used for medical treatments or extreme activities.